die Interessen der Regierung(en) durchsetzte und sich im Krieg gegen die Seminole-Indianer in Florida oder gegen die Creek-Indianer ausgezeichnet hatte. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei vfr-race.com
Muskogee (Volk) ein Angehöriger des gleichnamigen Indianervolks. Synonyme: [1, 2] Muskogee, Creek-Indianer. Beispiele:  „Er war aus England. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache.
Creek Indianer Search form VideoNightwish - Creek Mary's Blood Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache. für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee.
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In ihrer eigenen Sprache nennen sie sich Mvskoke oder Maskoki. Heute üblich ist die davon abgeleitete Schreibweise Muskogee , im englischsprachigen Raum auch Muscogee.
Die Seminolen sind eng verwandt mit den Muskogee und sprechen ebenfalls die Maskoki-Sprache. Die Muskogee sind eine der fünf zivilisierten Nationen.
Heute leben sie vor allem in Oklahoma , Alabama und Florida. Die frühgeschichtlichen Muskogee waren wahrscheinlich die Nachfahren der Mississippi-Kultur und möglicherweise mit den Utinahica in Süd- Georgia verwandt.
Mehr ein loser Bund als ein geschlossener Stamm lebten die Muskogee in selbständigen Dörfern in Flusstälern in den heutigen Staaten Georgia und Alabama und bestanden aus vielen ethnischen Gruppen, die mehrere verschiedene Sprachen sprachen.
Zu ihnen gehörten die Abihka , Alabama , Tallapoosa und Coushatta. Eventuell wurde der Name auch generell allen indigenen Völkern dieser Region verliehen, also auch den Natchez und den Yuchi.
Die Muskogee trieben Handel mit ihren neuen britischen Nachbarn und erhielten europäische Waren im Austausch gegen Hirschhäute und indianische Sklaven, die sie in Florida gefangen hatten.
Im Jahrhundert begannen sich die Muskogee mit britischen Händlern und geflohenen afrikanischen Sklaven zu verheiraten und zu vermischen.
They ceded the balance of their lands to the new state in the s. The Creek Nation is a relatively young political entity.
When Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, no such nation existed. About A. The Spanish incursions into the Southeast in the sixteenth century devastated these peoples.
European diseases such as smallpox may have killed 90 percent or more of the native population. But by the end of the s Southeastern Indians began to recover.
They built a complex political alliance, which united native peoples from the Ocmulgee River west to the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers in Alabama.
Although they spoke a variety of languages, including Muskogee, Alabama, and Hitchiti, the Indians were united in their wish to remain at peace with one another.
By English newcomers from South Carolina were calling these allied peoples "Creeks. They numbered about 10, at this time. When General James Oglethorpe and his Georgia colonists arrived in , Creek-English relations were already well established.
Oglethorpe with Creek Indians. By the s tens of thousands of skins were leaving the port of Charleston, South Carolina, each year, bound for English factories, where they were cut into breeches, stretched into book covers, and sewn into gloves.
Savannah , Georgia, later joined Charleston as a leading port, and in the s it may have exported more than 60, skins each year.
In Creek towns the profits from the trade included cloth, kettles, guns, and rum. These items became integral parts of the culture, easing the labor tasks of Creeks.
However, they also created conflict by enriching some, but not all, Indians. The trade William McIntosh.
Many Georgia newcomers were enslaved Africans, and they also forged ties with the Creek Indians. Over the course of the eighteenth century, hundreds of fugitives from slavery settled in Creek towns.
They, too, shaped the Creek peoples, especially by encouraging them to oppose slavery. An extensive series of other land cessions followed, and eventually the Creek economy collapsed.
According to Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, in Lieutenant Colonel John Abert wrote to the United States Secretary of War that during the last three years the Creek people had gone "from a general state of comparative plenty to that of unqualified wretchedness and want.
The Removal Treaty of gave land to Creeks who chose to emigrate to Indian Territory in exchange for tribal lands in Alabama.
In addition, each warrior would receive a rifle, ammunition, and a blanket; families' expenses would be paid during the migration and throughout the first year in the West.
Some full-blooded Creeks still farm land in the area of Oklahoma that was settled by the Upper Creeks. The Muscogee Nation operates a bingo hall and stores that sell tobacco products.
Broadening their economic development efforts is a high priority for the tribe. Many of the mixed-blood Creeks live in Tulsa, Eufaula, or other Oklahoma cities, working in a variety of occupations.
Census data from indicates that about two-thirds of the Creek Indians were living in urban settings at that time. At the time of Indian removal, a segment of the Creek people entered into an agreement with the government that enabled them to remain in the East.
They were business people who operated ferries, served as guides and interpreters, and raised cattle. Their descendants are the Poarch Creeks, whose tribal headquarters are located in Atmore, Alabama.
During the early s, some Poarch Creeks began to work in the timber and turpentine industries. Some also became tenant farmers or worked as hired farm laborers.
Beginning in the s, the pulpwood industry became an important element in the Poarch Creek economy. Since the s, Poarch Creeks have been working in other non-agricultural jobs.
According to statistics, 61 percent of Creeks over the age of 16 were in the labor force. Of those who were employed, 19 percent were in managerial or professional specialty occupations, and 26 percent were in technical, sales, and administrative support occupations.
Looking at major industry groups, approximately six percent worked in the agricultural, forestry, fisheries, and mining areas; nine percent worked in public administration; 12 percent worked in retail trade; 19 percent were involved in manufacturing; and 22 percent worked in professional and related services, including health and education.
Throughout their history, the Creeks governed themselves democratically. Each town elected a chief who served for life, though he could be recalled.
Members of each town were informed about issues and participated actively in decision making. Town leaders met in daily council sessions, and when broader councils were called, each town sent several representatives to speak and vote on its behalf.
Although there was no specific law fixing a penalty for misrepresenting constituents, leaders who did so faced severe consequences; for example, after signing a treaty that ceded good hunting grounds to Georgia, a chief returned home to find his house burned and his crops destroyed.
The society was matrilineal, but most positions of tribal leadership were filled by men. While women did not vote, they did enjoy full economic rights including property ownership, and they exerted significant influence on decisions by discussing their opinions with the men of the town.
Each town may also have appointed a Beloved Woman who communicated with her counterparts in other towns. The roles of the Beloved Woman and perhaps other female leaders have been lost to history since European observers ignored them and omitted them from written accounts.
In , a delegation of Creek leaders traveled to New York to negotiate a treaty with President Washington. It was the first in a long series of treaties that ceded tribal land to the United States; with each cession, the tribe was guaranteed unending ownership of their remaining land.
In some cases, treaties were obtained by such fraudulent means as purposely negotiating with a non-representative group of minor chiefs after being refused by the official delegation, or forging the names of chiefs who refused to cooperate.
In the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, whose mother was Creek, organized a rebellion against the United States. The Creek nation split over whether to join the uprising; most of the Lower Creeks supported Tecumseh while the Upper Creeks were rather evenly divided in their allegiance.
This division resulted in the Red Stick War, a devastating civil war within the tribe. Under terms of the peace treaty signed in , the tribe relinquished to the United States 22 million acres of land, including the townsites of some of the Upper Creeks who had fought alongside Andrew Jackson's forces against the rebels.
In addition to gradually obtaining ownership of tens of millions of acres of Creek land, federal and state governments placed a succession of restrictions on the Indians.
Alabama law, for example, prohibited an Indian from testifying against a white man. According to Grant Foreman in Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians , a Creek delegation to the United States Secretary of War in complained, "We are made subject to laws we have no means of comprehending; we never know when we are doing right.
The Removal Treaty of guaranteed the Creeks political autonomy and perpetual ownership of new homelands in Indian Territory in return for their cession of remaining tribal lands in the East.
It specified that each Creek could freely choose whether to remain on his homeland or move to the West. Those who decided to stay in the East could select homesteads on former tribal land.
Land speculators eager to profit from the anticipated influx of white settlers devised a variety of ways to cheat the Indians out of their land, either by paying far less than its true value or by forging deeds.
After an Indian attack on a mail stage—for which a white man was later convicted—a brief civil war pitted Creeks who wanted to remain in the East against those who accepted the concept of relocation.
Finally the federal government ordered forcible removal of all remaining Creeks in Emigrants were subjected to horrible conditions during the government-subsidized trips to Indian Territory.
One group began their journey in December , barefoot and scantily clothed; 26 percent of them died during the four-month journey.
Leaders pushed onward as quickly as they could, not allowing the Indians to conduct funeral services to ensure the dead an afterlife, and sometimes not even allowing the survivors to bury the dead.
In July , a party of 1, Creeks departed for the West with the warriors handcuffed and chained together for the entire journey. Upon arrival in Indian Territory, the Five Civilized Tribes faced opposition from plains Indians who would have to share diminished hunting grounds with 60, new residents.
Although the Creeks were capable of defending themselves against attack, they took the lead in conducting negotiations between the immigrant tribes and the indigenous people to establish peaceful coexistence.
As they settled into their new homeland, the Creeks discovered that the United States' promises of assistance went largely unfulfilled. Tools and farm implements did not come in time to build homes and plant crops.
Weapons and ammunition did not arrive, so the men had to relearn bow and arrow hunting techniques. In order to maximize profits from their government contracts, food suppliers delivered partial shipments and rancid provisions.
Especially during the first few years after relocation, annuity payments guaranteed by the treaty were made primarily in goods rather than in cash, and most of the items to be delivered were either useless to the Indians or were lost in shipment.
By the s the Creek people had begun to achieve a relatively prosperous life in their new territory. The Creeks tried to remain neutral in the conflict but were drawn into hostilities by attacks on their people.
Loyalties were once again divided. The Lower Towns generally favored retention of slavery and sided with the South, while the Upper Towns chose to abide by their treaties with the North.
What ensued was another civil war within the Creek nation. In retribution for the failure of the entire tribe to support the Union, the post-war treaty required the cession of 3.
The Creeks attempted to formalize their government after arriving in the West. A written constitution providing for elected tribal officers was adopted about ; after the Civil War, it was replaced with a new one modeled closely after the U.
As a result, tribal lands were removed from common ownership and distributed among individual Indians for private ownership.
In , the U. These federal policies were reversed by the Wheeler-Howard Act, which encouraged tribal cultural and economic development.
Two years later, Congress passed the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, providing Indian tribes with a mechanism for incorporating.
It also provided benefits such as a student loan program and a revolving fund to be used for extending credit to Indians.
The 37, members of the Muscogee Nation are governed by an elected principal chief, a bicameral legislature, and a judicial branch.
The 2, Poarch Creeks in Alabama are governed by an elected tribal council that selects a tribal chairman from among its nine members.
Listed below are some of the Creek people who have made notable contributions to American society as a whole.
It is difficult to arrange their names by area of contribution, since some individuals attained prominence in several fields.
Gary Fife is the producer and host of "National Native News," which airs on over public radio stations around the country.
Enoch Kelly Haney is an Oklahoma state senator who is nationally recognized for his political involvement and proactive stance for Native American rights; he is also an accomplished artist on canvas and in bronze.
Gale Thrower — received the Alabama Folk Life Heritage Award for her contributions toward preserving her tribe's traditions and culture. Alexander Alex Lawrence Posey was a poet and a writer of prose; he was elected to the House of Warriors, the lower chamber of the Creek National Council; at various times he served as superintendent of two boarding schools and the Creek Orphan Asylum, and as superintendent of public instruction for the Creek Nation of Oklahoma; he helped draft the constitution for the proposed State of Sequoia, a document on which the constitution for the state of Oklahoma was later based.
Ernest Childers — was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "exceptional leadership, initiative, calmness under fire, and conspicuous gallantry" on September 22, , at Oliveto, Italy.
John N. Reese was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "his gallant determination in the face of tremendous odds, aggressive fighting spirit, and extreme heroism at the cost of his life" on February 9, , at Manila in the Philippine Islands.
Allie P. Reynolds was a baseball pitcher with the Cleveland Indians from to and the New York Yankees from to ; he had the best earned run average ERA in the American League in and , and he led the league in strikeouts and shutouts for two seasons; he was named America's Professional Athlete of the Year in Jack Jacobs played football for the University of Oklahoma from to ; he also played professional football for 14 years with several teams including the Cleveland Rams, the Washington Redskins, and the Green Bay Packers.
Acee Blue Eagle was an acclaimed Creek painter. Department of State as goodwill ambassadors, using their art as a means of bridging the communications gap around the world.
Jerome Tiger , a painter and sculptor, was also a Golden Gloves boxer. His brother Johnny Tiger, Jr. She has done a series of paintings depicting the various treaties of the Five Civilized Tribes, and another portraying the women of the tribes.
The official publication of the Muscogee Nation. Distributed 12 times annually in English. Circulation is 8, These early Homes of the Creek Indians were manufactured utilizing a system of posts and shafts secured with wattle and wipe mud.
The dividers were then secured by stick mats and a thatched grass rooftop. The following style was the wattle and smear house made by weaving waterway stick, wood, and vines into a system, then covering the edge with mud.
The rooftop was either thatched with grass or shingled with bark. Creek , Muskogean-speaking North American Indians who originally occupied a huge expanse of the flatlands of what are now Georgia and Alabama.
There were two divisions of Creeks: the Muskogee or Upper Creeks , settlers of the northern Creek territory; and the Hitchiti and Alabama, who had the same general traditions as the Upper Creeks but spoke a slightly different dialect and were known as the Lower Creeks.
Traditional Creek economy was based largely on the cultivation of corn maize , beans, and squash. Most of the farming was done by women, while the men of the tribe were responsible for hunting and defense.
The Creek achieved status based on individual merit rather than by inheriting it. Like most Indians of the Southeast, they commonly tattooed their entire bodies.
Before colonization, Creek towns were symbolically grouped into white and red categories, set apart for peace ceremonials and war ceremonials, respectively.
Each town had a plaza or community square, around which were grouped the houses—rectangular structures with four vertical walls of poles plastered over with mud to form wattle.
The roofs were pitched and covered with either bark or thatch, with smoke holes left open at the gables.